Litum Real-Time Indoor Location Tracking Technology

Every aspect of the most accurate long-range indoor positioning system, made available by UWB RTLS technology

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    Benefits of Litum UWB RTLS System

    Litum UWB RTLS Mesh Network

    Mesh RTLS Network

    Contents

    What is Real Time Location System (RTLS)?

    RTLS is an indoor tracking system that locates and monitors any person or asset within a defined zone covered by an RF (Radio-Frequency) network. RTLS systems utilize a combination of hardware and software to create an indoor tracking network.

    The system uses several active RF receivers (also known as RTLS anchors) placed throughout the area to receive the radio signals sent by active RFID transmitters (RTLS Tags.) RTLS anchors are precisely placed to provide complete coverage of your area. Each of the anchors scans for the signals sent out by tags worn by staff or affixed to your equipment and vehicles.


    RTLS tags are made up of a small antenna, sensors, RTLS microprocessor and a battery. Most batteries on RTLS tags can last for months before needing to be recharged. The tags transmit a few times in a second or once every few seconds or minutes, depending on how often you want to refresh the location data.

    The signals transmitted by the tags are captured by the RTLS anchors and directed to RTLS gateways connected to your local network. All data within the signal is sent back to a location engine software, where the exact location of each tag is calculated and positioned on the facility map.
     RTLS is great at locations and tracking the movement of “things” via continuous feedback.

    What is Ultra Wideband? How does UWB RTLS work?

    UWB is a radio-based communication technology for short-range use for the fast and stable transmission of data indoors and outdoors. It is based on the combination of very short pulses moving at the speed of light. UWB broadcasts digital pulses that are timed very precisely on a carrier signal across a vast number of frequency channels simultaneously.

    Transmitter and receiver must be coordinated to send and receive pulses with an accuracy of trillionths of a second. The bandwidth of at least 500 MHz allows an exact measurement of the arrival time and a high-precision determination of the positions.

    UWB RTLS technology does not interfere with other technologies because the bandwidth (3.25 — 4.75 GHz and 6.25 — 6.75 GHz) differs from WLAN and ISM radio bands (reserved for industrial, scientific, and medical use).

    UWB radio not only can carry a considerable amount of data over a distance up to 230 feet (70 m) at low power (less than 0.5 milliwatts) but can carry signals through doors and other obstacles that tend to reflect signals at more limited bandwidths and a higher power.

    Indoor Location Detection Methods of UWB RTLS

    Many indoor location detection algorithms are used within indoor positioning UWB RTLS technology. Each determination method has its own pros and cons. Below are the most commonly used ones:

    Two-Way Ranging
    (TWR)


    TWR offers maximum precision and positional stability. The anchor sends a UWB signal and the sensor returns it. The distance between the anchor and the sensor is determined by the time required for the UWB pulses.
    A position can be determined as soon as the distance of a sensor relative to different anchors is available. The TWR method is mainly used for the localization of workers, tools, and navigation of driverless transport systems.

    Time-Difference of Arrival (TDoA)


    In the TDoA position determination the sensor transmits a signal which is received by the anchors at different intervals relative to the distance of the sensor. The position of the sensor is determined by the interval differences.
    Positioning with TDoA is mainly used for the localization of a large number of objects. It has the lowest energy consumption among the available methods on the market.

    Angle-of-Arrival
    (AoA)


    The AoA method evaluates the phase difference between the received signals at the two antennas of an anchor. Based on this, the angle of the signal relative to the anchor is calculated and thus the position of the sensor can be determined.
    AoA is generally used for position determination when there is a limited infrastructure and additional information is to be used by the sensor signals.

    What is Geofencing? How does it work within UWB RTLS?

    Geofencing is a virtual zoning service where RTLS Software (Business Rule Engine) triggers an action or a  set of actions when an RTLS tag moves into or outside of a monitored zone, referred to as a geofence.

    Geofenced zones are based on businesses ‘ needs and can be set as free, restricted, monitored, or hazardous zones. A geofence could be a department, a work area, a floor, or a cluster. Each zone is marked on the actual facility map for a visual demonstration.

    RTLS software allows a variety of business rules defined for each zone. Some examples are the number of people allowed, credentials requirements for entry. Also, the zones can be defined as value-added work areas, or non-value added work areas that can be used to analyze the time spent on the workforce performance.

    Litum Business Rule Engine

    A business rule engine (BRE) is a component of software allowing non-programmers to change the business logic in a business process management (BPM) system. To carry out a business policy or procedure, a business rule or statement is required. Business logic uses data in a database and a sequence of operations to carry out the business rule.

    Litum BRE allows businesses to create as many rules as they require to effectively manage safety and efficiency in their operations. Business rules could be as simple as “social distancing” or as complex as “crane work zone safety”.

    RTLS Business Rule Engine Screen
    Business Rule Engine Spaghetti diagram

    Litum Location Engine

    A location engine is a server that interprets all the data the RTLS system is collecting through its mesh network. At the end of this process spaghetti diagrams, heatmaps and many other types of visual reporting can be produced.